From the first year of life, children will eliminate all maternal defences and face infectious agents against which they have not yet developed immunity. Most of these antigens are benign and will be well tolerated, but others are more dangerous and trigger an immune response. These infectious agents usually cause the most common childhood diseases. Therefore, parents must know about these diseases and ensure they provide their children with high-quality medical care and prevention protocols to avoid such frequent infections.
Sore throats are usually common in children, usually caused by viruses, and typically do not need antibiotics or specific treatments, resolving within 7-10 days. Of course, there are times when clinical laboratory tests are required, for example, when a diagnosis of pharyngitis needs to be accurately confirmed.
Ear pain can have different causes: Ear infection, pressure due to a cold, tooth pain that radiates from the jaw to the ear, infection in the skin of the ear canal, etc. To differentiate them, the specialist will perform a physical examination and determine the presence of other symptoms to evaluate the treatment option corresponding to the case.
Urinary tract infection:
Urinary tract infections, caused by bacteria that accumulate in the bladder, are also common among childhood illnesses. This condition can extend into adolescence and even adult life. In addition, the doctor will need a urine sample to determine the cause of the infection and offer treatment tailored to the type of bacteria found in the model.
Pyoderma, caused by microorganisms such as pyogenic, streptococci and staphylococci, located in the superficial layer of the skin, is usually a common theme. The specialist will perform a swab to determine the type of microorganism causing the condition, classify the disease and offer treatment promptly.
It is a chronic infection of the central respiratory tract, most often seen in adults, but it also affects many children. Once diagnosed, it is treated with hydration, rest, and mucus clearing. In some instances, beta-adrenergic bronchodilators and antibiotics will be necessary for 7-10 days if it has a bacterial origin.
It is a common lung infection in infants and young children, causing inflammation and congestion of the airways, almost always caused by a virus. It is common for it to develop during the influenza season, and generally, care is reduced to checking that the child has no difficulty breathing, eating or eating.
Parasites such as intestinal worms, pinworms, roundworms, enteroviruses and giardiasis have adverse effects on the child’s gastrointestinal health, causing diarrhoea, Abdominal pain and favouring the development of other conditions such as anaemia, weight loss, sleep problems and poor performance in school. Deworming is recommended every six months.
It is caused due to bacteria that get trapped in the sinuses. Symptoms are similar to a cold, including a runny nose and cough lasting more than ten days.
Coughs are caused mainly by viruses, and antibiotics are not usually needed to treat them. The use of cough syrups is also not required unless indicated by the specialist; making them drink plenty of water and keeping the environment humid and free of dust and allergens is the proper way to treat a cough at home.
A virus usually causes the common cold in the upper respiratory tract. Those children of school age usually suffer between 6-8 colds per year, with symptoms such as runny nose, cough and nasal congestion, which can last up to 10 days. Only a doctor can prescribe antibiotics if bacterial sinusitis is suspected.
When to go to a specialist?
In general, most common childhood illnesses do not imply high danger levels. However, the parents will have to maintain continuous vigilance on the evolution of the symptoms in the child and evaluate the potential risk, contacting a specialist or going to the clinical centre in case of any new sign that causes concern.
Also, consider the possibility of contracting diseases, which usually appear in skin rashes, such as rubella, scarlet fever, chicken pox and measles. In addition, a specialist must supervise the treatment of this type of disease, and children will generally have to remain in isolation.
Measures to prevent the spread of common diseases in childhood:
First of all, the most scientifically based preventive measure is vaccination. It should start during the first months of life, being helpful to avoid the spread of life-threatening diseases in children and the development of serious pathologies. Vaccination must be correct, complete and at an early age.
Additionally, to avoid the spread of common childhood diseases, it is recommended:
Maintain proper hand hygiene:
- Proper handling and conservation of food to prevent microorganisms from being transferred to the child.
- Provide an adequate diet with foods rich in nutrients capable of stimulating your body’s natural defences.
- Inculcate the habit of sneezing and coughing by covering your nose and mouth with a handkerchief or your hand as a barrier.
- Avoid sharing glasses and cutlery.